Eagles may be famous for their vision, but the most incredible eyes of any animal belong to the mantis shrimp. Neither mantises nor shrimps, these small, pugilistic invertebrates are already renowned for their amazingly complex vision. Now, a group of scientists have found that they use a visual system that’s never been seen before in another animal, and it allows them to exchange secret messages.
As impressive as their arms are, the eyes of a mantis shrimp are even more incredible. They are mounted on mobile stalks and can move independently of each other. Mantis shrimps can see objects with three different parts of the same eye, giving them ‘trinocular vision’ so unlike humans who perceive depth best with two eyes, these animals can do it perfectly well with either one of theirs.
Their colour vision far exceeds our too. The middle section of each eye, the midband, consists of six parallel strips. The first four are loaded with eight different types of light-sensitive cells (photoreceptors), containing pigments that respond to different wavelengths of light. With these, the mantis shrimp’s visible spectrum extends into the infrared and the ultraviolet. They can even use filters to tune each individual photoreceptor according to local light conditions.
The fifth and six rows of the midband contain photoreceptors that are specialised for detecting polarised light. Normally, light behaves like a wave that vibrates in every possible direction as it moves along. In comparison, polarised light vibrates in just one direction – think of attaching a piece of string to a wall and shaking it up and down. While we are normally oblivious to it, it’s present in the glare that reflects off water and glass and we use polarising filters in sunglasses and cameras to screen it out.
Light can also travel in a the shape of a helix, moving as a spiralling beam that spins either clockwise (right-handed) or anti-clockwise (left-handed). This phenomenon is called ‘circular polarisation’. Tsyr-Huei Chiou from the University of Maryland found that the mantis shrimp’s eye contains the only known cells in the animal kingdom that can detect it. Our technology can do the same, but the mantis shrimps beat us to it by as much as 400 million years.
Koh Tao, our marine life is very diverse and is where I would like to take base in the Evil Titan Trigger Fish. Known scientifically as Bastiloides Viridescens. Is a beautiful and robust reef creature just waiting to be discovered. Usually swim around alone. These solitary creatures have been known to attack divers and might be cause serious injuries. But most of the time divers return with holes in them fins. People said that are getting attracted to colorful fins, what helps to don't get personal injuries.
Why the aggressive behavior?. Are merely reacting to what they perceive as threats to their nesting grounds, definitely a lesson for divers to respect the habitat of these fish, others seem to do so for fun of it. This much is clear, Titan Triggerfish are extremely territorial by nature. The male stands guard over its nest and will charge at any divers or fish that cross into its territory (the zone is a conic full circle directly above its nest). The nest is usually in a flat sandy area amongst the corals, an area that it will defend with a passion.
Bites should be taken seriously as they are ciguatoxic. That means is a natural poison which is found on some tropical reefs. It infects fish which feed on a marine algae. While harmless to the fish, even small amounts can have a harmful effect on humans. In cases of extreme poisoning, it may cause heart attacks, paralysis or death. The teeth, designed for crunching through hard shells and coral, can inflict serious wounds on any would-be intruders.
Titan Triggerfish are often solitary, and diurnal, meaning they are day-time fish, sleeping at night.
Won't always resort to violence though, on occasion just swimming at the intruder, usually a diver or snorkeler, to provide them with an escort out of the nesting territory. However, should a colorful male Titan happen to charge in your direction. It's best to do away with bravado and retreat, using your fins as a barrier between you and the fish!
Fish spotting is fun, no denying - but what makes fish REALLY interesting is knowing their quirky characteristic's.. Check out these fun fish facts to make spotting more fun...
- A male emperor angelfish lives together with up to five female mates. If the emperor angelfish dies, one of the females turns into a male fish and becomes the leader of the group
- The batfish plays dead when danger is near. It floats motionless on its side when scared, making it look like a dead leaf floating on the surface of the water.
- Seahorses are the only fish that swim upright!
- Fish use a variety of low-pitched sounds to convey messages to each other. They moan, grunt, croak, boom, hiss, whistle, creak, shriek, and wail. They rattle their bones and gnash their teeth. However, fish do not have vocal chords. They use other parts of their bodies to make noises, such as vibrating muscles against their swim bladder.
- Since a fish’s jaw is not attached to its skull, many fishes can shoot their mouths forward like a spring to catch startled prey.
- Sharks are the only fish that have eyelids.
- Most fish have taste buds all over their body
- A fish does not add new scales as it grows, but the scales it has increase in size. In this way, growth rings are formed and the rings reveal the age of a fish.
- Fish that have thin fins with a split tail indicate that they move very quickly or may need them to cover great distances. On the other had, fish that live among rocks and reefs near the ocean floor have broad lateral fin and large tails
- The fastest fish is the sailfish. It can swim as fast as a car travels on the highway
- Hammerhead sharks can live in schools of more than 500 sharks. The strongest female swims in the middle. When she is ready to mate, she shakes her head from side to side to signal the other female sharks to move away so she is the center of attention.
They are considered to be the largest of all eels and the most common cosmopolitan eel can be found in most saltwater marine environments, freshwater systems - even in some brackish waters. The moray eel classification is not endangered up to date despite being fished commercially in many countries.
Moray Eel Habitat
Morays tend to thrive better in shallow warm water habitats and especially near the seabed of coral reef formations or hidden in rock crevices and small caves.
Muraenidae are carnivores and the biggest eel of the species, the giant moray eels, will feed on almost all mollusks, squid, crabs, cuttlefish, octopuses, and small tropical fishes such as the damselfish families.
Moray eels typically kill their prey either by wrapping their body around the victim until it is crushed flat enough to swallow or often they will simply tear its prey into small bite-size pieces using two sets of razor sharp teeth. The back row of extra teeth help to break up the food ready for digestion.
One of the most curious of all moray eel facts is that it has two circular breathing gills located behind its head. They jabber their huge jaws constantly to circulate water from their mouth towards their gills.
Top moray eel facts
- the biggest moray eel species can grow to 5 meters long and weigh up to 14 kilos
- There are more than 200 moray eel species (Muraenidae) with an average lifespan of 20 years
- A moray eel looks similar to a snake but in fact morays are fishes
- Moray's teeth point backwards to preventing its prey escaping
- Some moray eel species produce a slippery mucus which contains toxins
- Morays are voracious predators themselves, but they are also hunted and eaten by barracudas and larger sharks
- Female morays release around 10,000 eggs after mating which initially hatch as tiny larvae drifting in plankton streams
- Despite commonly having large eyes, morays do not see well but they do have a good sense of smell helping them to find prey
The blue streaked cleaner wrasse. He (or she) runs a little business, like a dentist or hairdresser. He is a professional skin doctor and makes a decent living removing parasites, displaced scales and tissue from client fish. Fish all over the world recognise the black stripe outlined in blue in the same way that a young child instantly recognises the McDonald’s logo.
Mr Labroides is a businessman.He chooses the location for his cleaner station with care, ideally somewhere prominent on the reef. He spends some time performing an eye-catching zig-zag dance around the area to advertise the fact that he is in business and drawing potential clients into his surgery.
There is a mutual trust between Mr Labroides and his clients: they trust him not to nibble at delicate gill tissues; he trusts them not to eat him while he cleans their teeth. The trusting atmosphere extends beyond the relationship between cleaner and client. A client that feels he has been cheated is likely to seek the services of another branded cleaner fish station.
Some have estimated that he may take 1,200 parasites from clients a day and that some clients may spend up to a third of their day in his salon.
He’s a busy little chap